昨日东芝今日华为 中国却不是30洪尧和叶子年前的日本(3)

2019-05-29 11:53陈静健美网
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特朗普正在访日,中美贸易仍在摩擦——在这个时间节点,很多国际媒体不约而同地想起了30年前美国和日本的那场贸易战……

美国——成就日本,又“搞垮”日本

Japan in 1980s: the glory and the lost

二战后,当时日本迎来了战后的第二次经济高速增长期,并在上世纪80年代达到顶峰,成为仅次于美国的世界第二大经济体。

As China has replaced Japan as the world's second-largest economy, people were reminded of a history of similar trade friction between Japan and the U.S.

In the 1980s, Japan's economy embraced a full bloom and became the second largest in the world.?

But it also became the "big bad" in U.S. propaganda, with many fear that it was about to overtake the U.S. Voices have been raised, warning that Japan is "Japanning America" and "buying the U.S. with our money".??

做工精巧、价格低廉的日本商品在美国站稳了脚跟。以汽车行业为首,机床(东芝)、重型机械(小松)以及摄像机(松下)等产业相继繁荣发展,日本进入了飞速发展的“黄金时期”。

在巅峰时期,日本在世界500强企业中占据149家,近三分之一。然而,巨大的贸易逆差逐渐让美国变得寝食难安,技术方面被日本赶超的阴云一直笼罩着美国。

“上世纪80年代,日本是那个‘大坏蛋’。很多美国人都担心自己国家的领先地位将被取代”,CNN在报道中这样形容道。

日本威胁论开始在美国盛行。当时的报纸头条,这画风看着眼熟吗——

“美国把自己卖了 还在帮日本数钱”


“热爱一切日本制造——美国正逐渐被日本化”

更令人熟悉的还在后头。1989年,当时年轻的特朗普在一次采访中说道:“日本正在有预谋地吸美国的血!这场杀人不见血的战争,日本已经胜利了!”

Japan has "systematically sucked the blood out of America – sucked the blood out!" Donald Trump said in an interview back in 1989, according to CNN, "They have gotten away with murder. They have ended up winning the war."

而当时,特朗普给出的解决办法是——对所有商品加征20%的税。“往死里加税!20%油税、20%机动车税、20%VCR税!”

Trump also put forward his "solution" to the huge trade deficit to Japan in 1989: a 20 percent tax>特朗普1989年接受美国媒体采访,称日本正在“吸美国的血”

1981年,里根上台,随即发动贸易战对日本展开征讨。美国推行一系列贸易保护主义政策、加征关税、指责日本操纵汇率、最终胁迫日本签订《广场协议》(Plaza Accord),导致其经济陷入长达数十年的停滞。日本从此进入了“失去的十年”(lost decade)。

After Ronald Reagan inaugurated in 1981, he soon whipped Japan with limited import goods, mounted tariff and took a lead role in yen appreciation. In 1985, Japan signed the Plaza Accord along with France, Germany, U.K., and the U.S.

U.S. dollar depreciated significantly in relation to yen, which in turn made Japanese products become more expensive. It further caused the divergence between Japan and its former trading partners.?

Later the country's efforts in keeping yen's value low sparked a stock price bubble. Japan entered an era of recession known as the "lost decade".??

昨日东芝,今日华为

Toshiba yesterday, Huawei today?

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